Horne Lake – Docs & Data – pre-1856 Trail

1856-57 Pemberton’s Survey & Report – first series in (B&W); next series in (blue)
1871-86 Waggon Road – for future entry
1900’s Right-of-Way – for future entry

Joseph Pemberton

In 1859, Joseph Pemberton assumed the role of Colonial Surveyor of CIVD when the HBC lease ended, and in 1861 named Surveyor General for the renamed Colony of Vancouver Island. But before 1859, he wore two hats: Surveyor & Engineer for HBC and Colonial Surveyor for CIVD. We do not know which position came first, but the map being at HBC suggests he was a Company man first.

http://search-bcarchives.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/land-sale-vouchersBiographical history: The first Surveyor General for the Colony of Vancouver Island was appointed in 1859 under the name Colonial Surveyor. Prior to that, the affairs of the colony were also the affairs of the Hudson’s Bay Company and were administered by the chief factor (James Douglas) and employees of the company. The name was changed to Surveyor General by Royal Warrant in 1861. The first Surveyor General was Joseph Despard Pemberton who was originally hired as Colonial Surveyor and Engineer for the Hudson’s Bay Company in Victoria in 1851. In 1859, when his contract with the company expired and the Hudson’s Bay Company surrendered the Colony of Vancouver Island to the British government, Pemberton was appointed as Colonial Surveyor for the colony. In 1861, Pemberton received a royal warrant from Queen Victoria naming him as Surveyor General for the Colony of Vancouver Island. He served in that position until 1864 during which time his assistant, Benjamin W. Pearse, served as Acting Surveyor General when Pemberton was absent. Pemberton resigned his post in 1864 and Pearse continued as Acting Surveyor General until 1866 when Vancouver Island was united with the Colony of British Columbia. The Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General for the Colony of British Columbia was responsible for Vancouver Island from 1866 until 1871 when the Colony of British Columbia joined confederation as a province of the Dominion of Canada.”

References – MSS

XEROX 200-5 GH Richards Letterbook, copy 3. [n.d.] 26-6, Richard’s Vancouver Island survey. 1860-1862.  SEE ALSO: BOX 30 Photocopied Maps. Source: Akrigg Fonds, UBC Archives: https://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/u_arch/akrigg.pdf

Extracts relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection, 1863. Contributed by: The University of Manchester, John Rylands University Library, http://www.jstor.org/stable/60229904

Report of the committee on crown lands of Vancouver Island. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection, 1864. Contributed by: The University of Manchester, John Rylands University Library, http://www.jstor.org/stable/60230300

Groombridge and Sons, Vancouver’s Island : survey of the districts of Nanaimo and Cowichan Valley. London: 1859 (London : George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode), Item no. 11 in volume U.24.10. UCAMBRIDGE ON-LINE CAT

Harvey, Arthur, A statistical account of British Columbia. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection, 1867. Contributed by: The University of Manchester, John Rylands University Library, URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/60229644

Langley, A.J., A glance at British Columbia and Vancouver’s island in 1861 / by British Columbia and Vancouver’s islan, London: Robert Hardwicke, 1862. UCAMBRIDGE ON-LINE CAT

Lytton-Bulwer, Edward George Earle, Baron, 1803-1873. London : G.E. Eyre : 1859. Compagnie de la Baie d’Hudson/ Hudson’s Bay Company. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100264034. – Mr. Horn mentioned in 1858-23-Oct Copy of Letter and Report from Capt. GH Richards, RN to Gov Douglas, p.12-16 (p.16n) https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100264034.

Maritime Museum of BC, Victoria, BC.”RE: Visit by HMS Sparrowhawk to Alberni Canal and mention of Horn (sic) Lake”, Henry Wentworth Mist Fonds 1855-1872 (Captain Henry Wentworth Mist, RN, HMS Sparrowhawk, 1868-1872. He also acted as Justice of the Peace on the West Coast of British Columbia). The fonds consists of Captain Mist’s personal log, 1868-1872, including correspondence to Admiralty as well as testimonials by native Indians on the Northwest coast; HMS Havannah, log for 1855-1859, Pacific Station. Mist was aboard as a Lieutenant.  Reference code CA MMB L61;L62. BCAUL control number: MMB-2416.


The colonial despatches of Vancouver Island and British Columbia 1846-1871

http://bcgenesis.U.Victoria (Canada).ca/getDoc.htm?id=V57001.scx

Despatch to London, Douglas to The Right Honble Henry Labouchere Esqre, Her Majesty’s principal Secretary of State For the Colonial Department. 09 January 1857: “Nothing of much importance…”

Despatch to London, Douglas to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, Secretary of State for the Colonies, 12724, CO 60/1, p. 245; received 14 December. This transcription has not been fully proofed. Abstract No. 6, Victoria, Vancouver’s Island, 26 October 1858:

“Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Despatch No. 8, [Vancouver Island,] of the 14th of August last, and it is with feelings of indescribable satisfaction that I observe that my administrative acts in this Country continue to meet the approval of Her Majesty’s Government…26. I lost no time in attending to your instructions and have now the honor of transmitting herewith, a report on the Harbours of Vancouver’s Island, prepared by Captain Richards, Commanding H.M. Surveying Ship “Plumper,” which which contains a great deal of useful information on the subject treated. I will procure and forward further information by every opportunity.  27. I will moreover, as you have considerately suggested, not enter upon any act of general legislation until I am fully authorized thereto. Having thus replied to the several points in your despatch, I have etc. James Douglas Governor British Columbia”

See enclosed report, from CAPT RICHARDS, RN to GOV DOUGLAS reporting on navigation matters, 23 October 1858:

“Many years since, I visited Nootka Sound which probably may be taken as a type of the others; their general characteristic, deep and narrow channels, studded with Islands thickly timbered. Spars of large size procurable and probably those of a superior kind will be found at the head of these arms which in some instances reach midway to the Eastern Coast of the Island. It is more than probable that when the tide of emigration shall set in the direction of Vancouver Island these Inlets will become of great importance, particularly that of Nitinat or Barclay Sound on the S.W. Coast close to the entrance of Fuca Strait, and the head of whose waters have been reached in little more than a days Journey on foot, from the Coast a few miles North of Nanaimo harbour on the East Coast. Mr Horn a gentleman of the Hudson Bay Company who made this Journey, informs me that he crossed a very extensive lake, in the centre of the Island, and that much good and open land exists in its neighbourhood, entirely free from the dense forests which fringe the whole sea Coast of the Island. It is also certain that valuable fisheries might be established in these deep sounds, and great quantities of good oil exported, and it is more than probable, nay almost certain that seams of Coal will be discovered.  Geo Henry Richards, Captain HMS Plumper, Vancouver ID Survey.”


Despatch to London, His Excellency James Douglas, Governor, Vancouver’s Island, Victoria, Vancouver’s Island, Dec 15th, 1856:

I had the honor in the middle of October last to receive your instructions to examine a part of the Island from a point N of Nanaimo to an Inlet of the sea reached by Mr. Horne, and beg to submit for your information and that of the Governor and Committee of the Hudsons Bay Company the results of such observations as I was able to make, with a Map and which they are laid down. As I was rather late in the season, I was not able to take many observations and the Map must be regarded as a mere Reconnaissance which should however eventually assist in a future survey. The part about Barclay Sound being the least accurate. The principal observations attempted being as follows, and the following (are, in each sample, and aforementioned estimate ?):

[ CHART ] An indentation is made in the Coast Line between [Valdy ?] Inlet and [Point Lamada ?]. The trail from Quallicum to Horne’s Lake is principally through [great ?] woods. Soil gravelly. Horne’s Lake is probably [150′ ?] above the ([Sea ?]. The [ground ?] level between Horne’s Lake and the head of Alberni Canal is [80 to 200 ft ?] above the sea; the trail through forest, the [trail ?] generally sand [and indifferent ?]. A better road might be cut a little to the South of the Lake. For a Road from Nanaimo to the Head of the Canal the Country is not yet examined. A ridge of Mountains [(some series of them) ?] occupying the middle of the Island in the direction of its length but not [unbroken ?] is shown on the map. [***Horne’s Lake section ends…*** “Alberni”, “Barclay Sound”, and “Timber” sections below]. I have the honor to be Sir, Your most obedient Servant, Jos.D.Pemberton, Colonial Surveyor.”


UK Parliament – Archives

HL/PO/JO/10/9/320        Main Papers       13 Aug 1857-20 Aug 1857
HL/PO/JO/10/9/475        Main Papers       1 July 1862-14 July 1862
HL/PO/JO/10/9/502        Main Papers       1 July 1863-9 July 1863
HL/PO/JO/10/9/657        Main Papers       7 July 1868-20 July 1868
HL/PO/JO/10/9/665        Main Papers       1868

HL/PO/PU/1/1868/31&32V1n254, Public General Act, 31 & 32 Victoria I, c. 105, 1868

 See also: Papers relative to the affairs of British Columbia: Part II.: copies of despatches from the governor of British Columbia to the secretary of state for the colonies and from the secretary of state to the governor, relative to the government of the colony : presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, 12th August 1859.


References – Published Sources

Brown, R., “Explorations in the Interior of Vancouver Island,” Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol.9 (1864-65), pp. 305-308. XEROX 78. 336.  Published by: Wiley on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). DOI: 10.2307/1798907 – http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798907

Forbes, C., “Notes on the Physical Geography of Vancouver Island,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 34 (1864), pp. 154-170. A map is on p.154. Official report did not include a map. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798470  

Gooch, Lt. T. S. of H.M.S. Satellite [later Gooch, Capt. T. Sherlock]. “Across Vancouver Island”, Colburn’s United Services Magazine, 117. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. London, England. 1887.

Gooch, T. S., Facts and Figures Relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia: Showing What to Expect and How to Get There (London, Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, 1860). Vancouver Public Library: Central Branch Special Coll. Ref. NW Hist 971.105 P39f IN

Grant, W. Colquhoun (2nd Dragoon Guards), “Description of Vancouver Island,” The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 27, 1857, pp. 268-320. Read June 22, 1857. DOI: 10.2307/1798380 – Map shows Horn Lake with the hint of a trail. URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798380

Grant, W. Colquhoun, “Remarks on Vancouver Island, Principally Concerning Townsites and Native Population,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society,Vol. 31 (1861) pp. 208-213.

Mayne, R.C., “Route in Exploring a Road from Albernie (sic) Canal to Nanaimo,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 32 (1862), pp. 529-35.

Mayne, R.C., “Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island”, Chapter 10. An Account of the Forests, Rivers, Coasts, Gold Fields, and Resources for Colonisation by Commander Edward C. Mayne, R.N., F.R.G.S. (1862)  http://www.electriccanadian.com/history/bc/4years/chapter10.htm

Palmer, H.S., “Remarks upon the Geography and Natural Capabilities of British Columbia,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 34 (1864), pp. 171-195. And, “Discussion on the Paper by Mr. Palmer on British Columbia” Proceedings of the R.G.S. Vol. 8 (1863-4) pp. 90-94.

Waddington, A. “On the Geography and Mountain Passes of British Columbia in Connection with an Overland Route,” Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. 38 (1868), pp. 118-128. Also, Proceedings of the R.G.S., Vol.12 (1867-68) pp. 120-126 (abstract & discussion).

Richards, George Henry,  The Private Journal of Captain G.H. Richards, The Vancouver Island Survey (1860-1862), Vancouver : Ronsdale Press, 2012.

Layland, Michael, The Land of Heart’s Delight – Early Maps and Charts of Vancouver Island, Victoria, BC : TouchWood Editions, c2013.

M., J. J., “Vancouver’s Island”, The Spectator, Apr 3, 1858, Vol.31(1553), p.364.

Hazlitt, William Carew, 1834-1913. British Columbia and Vancouver Island : comprising a historical sketch of the British settlements in the north-west coast of America and a survey of the physical character, capabilities, climate, topography, natural history, geology and ethnology of that region / compiled from official and other authentic sources by William Carew Hazlitt. London : G. Routledge, 1858.

Ruggles, Richard I., A Country So Interesting – The Hudson’s Bay Company and Two Centuries of Mapping, 1670-1870, Montreal : McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1991.

Pemberton, Joseph Despard, Benjamin William Pearse and Oliver Wells; Vancouver Island Colony Topographical Survey, Great Britain. War Office. Topographical Depot.; Vancouver Island. Colonial Surveyor. London : Topographical Depot, 1859.



(1792) San Juan Water Boundary (Arbitration): list of maps sent to Admiral Prevost at Berlin on the 12th June 1872 [map 15 (1792)] Carta esferica de los reconocimientos hechos en 1792 en la costa n.o. de America, G Map, FO925-1650 pt1 (15), Penfold number 506. San Juan Boundary Arbitration. Atlas. Maps sent to Admiral Prevost at Berlin on 12 June 1872. With list. [Juan de Fuca, Strait, 1795; 1872]. Insert elevation: Canal de la Salida. The names which are added in red ink to this map are copied from the original one by Lopes de Haro, which is preserved at the Deposito Hidrografico at Madrid. On Lopes de Haro’s map there is the above title which has also been copied. Source: U.Victoria (Canada) Archives

* Note * HBC reputedly supplied the Russians with charts of the Pacific Northwest through Astor’s Russian-American Company, prior to 1849, but kept this data away from HM Government.

  • See article here: Doe, Nick A., A Russian map of Gabriola—1849, SHALE 3, pp.7–17, January 2002. Copyright © 2002: Gabriola Historical & Museum Society. For reproduction permission e-mail: nickdoe@island.net http://www.nickdoe.ca/pdfs/Webp215c.pdf
  • See indications of a relationship between the Russians and HBC: Letter from Mikhail Dmitrievich Teben’kov [Novo-Arkhangelsk?] 15/ VII-1847 to G. Archimandritoff. 1ℓ Russian skipper Archimandritoff, Commander of the steamer Nicholai I is instructed to take freight from the English ship Cowlits to the storekeeper Tacharnikoff on the Stikine River. The ship Cowlits will accompany Nicholai I to the destination for a meeting with the English and conference with Stikine Indians, including four chiefs. [Note: The “English Cowlits” may HBC’s SS Cowlitz, launched 1840, used for the PNW coast trade, and sold 1851]. Calendar of Russian American Company Letters. & A List of Russian Orthodox Church Records, Alaska State Library Historical Collections, MS 004-02-01, alaska.gov/hist/hist_docs/finding_aids/MS004-02-01.doc
  • Note: Mikhail Teben’kov’s created Atlas sieverozapadnykh beregov Ameriki ot Beringova proliva do mysa Korríentes i ostrovov Aleutskikh [Atlas of the Northwest Coasts of America from the Bering Strait to Cape Corrientes and the Aleutian Islands] (St. Petersburg, 1852), prepared by the former governor of Russian Alaska, which provided the best charts of the Pacific coast until 1854.
  • Stikine (also Fort Stikine, Fort Stikeen, and Fort Wrangell) was a fur trade post, operating from 1840-1849: “Stikine, then called Fort Wrangell, was transferred to the Hudson’s Bay Company from the Russian American Fur Company on a ten-year lease in 1839. James Douglas received possession of Stikine, located at the mouth of the Stikine River on Wrangell Island on 1 June 1840. Closed 1849. Trade carried on by HBC coasting vessels based at Fort Victoria.” cf. http://pam.minisisinc.com/scripts/mwimain.dll/2353/1/6/2244?RECORD&DATABASE=AUTHORITY_WEB_INT

[Note: This is the James Douglas who later claimed to HM Government (Nick Doe, above) that the Pacific region desperately needed good charts – hinting that his subterfuge of 1856-58 perhaps replicated similar actions prior to 1849-50].

(1848, 1861) Vancouvers Island. 2 Editions, with MS Notes. 12.5 miles to an inch. J. Wyld, London. Published by James Wyld, geographer to the Queen & H.R.H. Prince Albert, Charing Cross East, four doors from Trafalgar square. Relief shown by hachures. Descriptive text. At lower left of map: (Second edition) Exclusive copyright, 5 & 6, Victoria, Cap.45.  Copied from note on cover. Mr. Bancroft sent a copy of this map to Mr Buchanan 19 Octr. 1848. & remark’d “You will see that this map suggests an encroachment on our rights by adopting a li ne far to the E. of the Straits of Haro”. Source: U.Victoria (Canada) Archives

(1857) Map of North America, showing territories claimed by the Hudson’s Bay Company, in virtue of the Charter granted to them, by King Charles II, also British and Russian territories and Church Missionary Stations, by J. Arrowsmith. About 175 miles to an inch. J. Arrowsmith, London. The National Archives, Kew. FO 925/1483. MPG 1/408/2.

(1856) Vancouver Island and the Gulf of Georgia. Vancouver Island and the Strait of Georgia. G Map, FO925-1383, Penfold number 563. North America West Coast. Vancouver Island and the Gulf of Georgia : from the surveys of Captain G. Vancouver R.N. 1793, Captains D. Galiano and C. Valdes 1792, Captain H. Kellett R.N. 1847 ; Rosario and Haro Straits from the United States Coast Survey 1854. Hydrographic Office of the Admiralty, 1849, corrections to 1856; J. & C. Walker sculpt. Admiralty map 1917. [Vancouver Island, 1849; 1856] Insets: Engraved views from Cook’s and Vancouver’s Voyages. Relief shown by hachuring. Soundings in fathoms. Shows First Nations villages; forts; Vancouver’s track; anchorages. MS notes in red describe terrain. Additional line extends Fraser and Thompson Rivers. Source: U.Victoria (Canada) Archives

(1858) Sketch map of part of the British possessions to the west of the Rocky Mountains. British Possessions to the West of the Rocky Mountains. G Map, CO700-BRITISH COLUMBIA5, Penfold number 381. North America. Sketch Map of part of the British Possessions to the West of the Rocky Mountains. Lithographed and Printed at the Topographical Depot, War Department, under the direction of Captain Elphinstone, RE; H James, Col RE, Superintendent. About 23 miles to 1 inch. Author, Publisher, &c.: War Office, London. [British Columbia, c. 1858]. Map includes reference key for food products, timber, animals, and fish. Descriptive text on farms, soil types, etc. Locates Forts and some First Nations villages and territories. Source: U.Victoria (Canada) Archives

(map & reports by Mayne, R. C., Lieut.) – Various Sources:

  • (1859) James, Henry, Sir, 1803-1877, reporting to Richards, George Henry, Sir. Sketch of Part of British Columbia by Lieutnt R.C. Mayne, R.N. of H.M.S. Plumper, 1859. Latitude 49° 18’N – 50° 49’N; Longitude 120° W – 123° W, 1859. Scale: 1 inch to 4 nautic miles. Surveyor: Richards, Capt., R.N. | James, H. Col. – director of War Office | Pettigrew, C. – copier | Biggar, H.P. – certifier.
  • Source #1: The National Archives, Kew. UK. http://discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk/details/r/C6743763 and http://searcharchives.vancouver.ca/british-columbia-and-vancouver-island
  • Source #2: Library & Archives Canada (National Archives), Microfiche Number: 29828, Negative Number: 83407. Call Number: H2/601/1859(1935), Record No.: 23573
  • (1859) Mayne, R.C., “Sketch of part of British Columbia, by Lieut. R. C. Mayne, R.N., of H.M.S. “Plumper,” 1859.” About 2 miles to 1 inch. Publisher, &c.: War Office, London.
  • (1859) Mayne, R. C. Lieut. R.N., Sketch of part of British Columbia. Scale 1:290,000 (Approx)
  • (1860) Mayne, R. C. Lieut. R.N., Sketch of part of British Columbia. Scale 1:300,000, London: War Office, Topo. Dept.

(1859) The Provinces of British Columbia and Vancouver Island; with portions of the United States and Hudson’s Bay Territories. Compiled from original documents by John Arrowsmith, London, 1st June, 1859. [Inset: Queen Charlotte Islands.] 40 miles to 1 inch. The National Archives, Kew. CO 700/BritishColumbia6

(1861) Richards, G.H., RN, Vancouver Island-Barclay Sound by Richards, G. H., Control Number: rgs555505, Scale 1:63360. Publisher: New Westminster, B. C.: Royal Engineers, 1861 RGS-IBG Collections [MR CANADA S.286]. U.Victoria (Canada) Libraries.

(1864) Sketch maps of parts of Vancouver Island made by the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition, by Brown, Robert [under command of]. Control Number: rgs556360, Scales differ. S.161. U.Victoria (Canada) Libraries.

 (1864) Provinces of British Columbia and Vancouver Island; with portions of the United States and Hudson’s Bay Territories, CO700-BRITISH COLUMBIA, 13 Penfold number 417, The Provinces of British Columbia and Vancouver Island; with portions of the United States and Hudson’s Bay Territories, compiled from original documents by John Arrowsmith, London, 1864. [Inset: Queen Charlotte Islands.] 40 miles to 1 inch. [British Columbia, Alberta, Washington, 1864]. Published by Edward Stanford. Descriptive text on map. Shows First Nations territories. U.Victoria (Canada) Libraries.

(1865) Vancouver Island and adjacent shores of British Columbia, Admiralty Survey by Capt Richards RN. G Map,

FO925-1810, Penfold number 570. Vancouver Island and adjacent shores of British Columbia; surveyed by Captn. G.H. Richards, R.N. assisted by Lieut. R.C. Mayne ; J.A. Bull, D. Pender, E.P. Bedwell, Masters ; J.T. Gowlland & G.A. Browning, Sec. Masters, & E. Blunden, Mast. Assist. 1859-64 ; Juan de Fuca Strait from Capt. Henry Kellett’s survey of 1847, shores of Washington Territory from the United States Coast survey ; [compiled & drawn for engraving by E.J. Powell of the Hydrographic Office] ; engraved by Davies & Powell. Admiralty Chart 1917. About 10 miles to one inch. Admiralty. [Vancouver Island, 1859-65; 1871].  Lower left corner damaged. At head of title: North America, west coast. Relief shown by bathymetry, soundings in feet, hachures and spot heights. Includes nautical features. Shows First Nations territories. Side views of several features bottom left. First published 1865, updated and corrected. Latest date on map 1871?. U.Victoria (Canada) Libraries.

(1863-1864) Canada; United States of America. 1863 edition of John Arrowsmith’s map of North America. The map shows the territory of the Hudson’s Bay Company coloured green, other British territories coloured pink, and Russian territory (Alaska) coloured yellow. It shows isothermal lines and Hudson’s Bay Company bases outside the chartered territory. A reference table shows relative areas of the Company’s land, France, England and Wales and Russia in Europe. Scale: 1 inch to about 180 miles. This map was originally enclosed in Sir Edmund Head’s letter of 13 December 1864. The National Archives, Kew.

(1865) 1863 report to Uk Parliament; Map accompanying report – Plan of Nanaimo, showing the coal mines, from records and surveys of the Hon Hudson Bay Company, and original observations by C.S. Nicol, manager, and Dr Hector, 1860. 3.66 furlongs to one inch. Captain Palliser’s explorations in British North America. To accompany ‘The journals, detailed reports and observations’ presented to both Houses of Parliament, 19 May 1863. E. Stanford, London. FO 925/1936. The National Archives, Kew.

HBC Archives (@ Archives of Manitoba)

{from Archives of Manitoba site: “The Archives Department of the Hudson’s Bay Company was created in London in the 1920s. The Archives Department had custody of the records until they were transferred on deposit to the Archives of Manitoba in 1974, according to the 1973 Agreement between the HBC and the Province of Manitoba. In 1994, the HBC donated the records to the Province to be maintained permanently by the Archives of Manitoba.”}

HBC Survey report is at: Reel 169, Governor and Committee inward correspondence from posts. Correspondence from Victoria – A.11/76 : 1856-1858. Microfilm No. 169.

Tracing of map of Vancouver Island from Nanaimo and Qualicum across to Barclay Sound and Port San Juan, with profile sketch of coast at Port San Juan, Creator: J.D. Pemberton, 1856. Fonds/Series Title: Governor and Committee inward correspondence from posts. Geographic location: Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Scale: 1 inch = 3 1/2 miles. Medium: tracing paper; black ink; grey wash. This map originally accompanied correspondence found in Governor and Committee inward correspondence from posts — correspondence from Victoria (A.11/76).

Note: original is available but is in delicate condition. This record must be viewed on microfilm. The Archives has made a digitized copy [see U.Victoria (Canada) hyperlink, below]. Includes four maps in file and originally included seven maps which were removed from file. Please see individual listings for more details.

The survey shows the village at the mouth of the Qualicum River. It also appears to show three or four Tseshaht villages (two inland of the head of the Alberni Canal and two along the north shore of the Canal).

Digitized copy at the archives website of University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada: http://contentdm.library.U.Victoria (Canada).ca/cdm/singleitem/collection/collection19/id/24/rec/92



This is list of other HBC fonds to check – Many not searched yet. **

Source: Fonds/Series Title Governor and Committee inward correspondence from posts. http://pam.minisisinc.com/scripts/mwimain.dll/6176/DESCRIPTION_LINK/REFD/8122?JUMP

Correspondence from Victoria A.11/75 : 1854-1855                       
1 folder of textual records including 4 maps
Microfilm No. 168, 169;

1 folder of textual records including 1 map
Correspondence from Victoria – A.11/76 : 1856-1858
Pemberton’s Survey Observations (above) are from reel 169 in this series.
Microfilm No. 169, 170, 171, 172;

Correspondence from Victoria – A.11/77 : 1859-1860;
1 folder of textual records including 1 map 
Microfilm No. 172, 173, 174;

Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/78 : 1861-1862 : 174/175;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/79 : 1863-1864 : 175/176;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/80 : 1865-1866 : 176/177/178;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/81 : 1867 : 178/179;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/82 : 1867 : 179/180;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/83 : 1868 : 180/181;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/84 : 1869 : 181/182/183;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/78 : 1861-1862 : 174-175;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/79 : 1863-1864 : 175-176;
Correspondence from Victoria: A.11/80 : 1865-1866 : 176-177-178;

Pemberton’s correspondence : 1851-1855

1 volume and 1 drawing: Sub-series consists of copies of J.D. Pemberton’s inward and outward correspondence with the secretary of the Governor and Committee, and with Andrew Colvile, HBC Governor from 1852 to 1856. Pemberton was employed by the HBC as a surveyor on Vancouver Island from 1851 to 1858. The correspondence describes Pemberton’s surveying and cartographic work in preparation for the island’s colonisation. Includes notes describing the flora and fauna, comments on geological formations and town sites, together with sketches and diagrams relating to the survey of lots. Correspondence is arranged chronologically.  

HBC Nanaimo, 1852-1862

  • Nanaimo reported directly to the following entities:
  • 1852-1853 Hudson’s Bay Company. Columbia District
  • 1853-1862 Hudson’s Bay Company. Western Department

Nanaimo was a coal mining establishment in the Columbia District and the Western Department. HBC presence at Nanaimo was established in 1852, on the east side of Vancouver Island at Nanaimo Harbour for the purpose of establishing a coal mine. In 1853, a bastion was built at Nanaimo as a means of protecting the miners. The main floor of the bastion was used as an office and a store. In October 1853, surveying of land purchased by the HBC at Nanaimo was begun by J.D. Pemberton. The survey was completed in May 1854 and deeds of purchase for the land were prepared. The terms of purchase between the HBC and the local Aboriginal community for the land at Nanaimo were completed in December 1854, and in May 1855 the purchase of the coal field and salt spring at Nanaimo by the HBC was completed. In 1862, the HBC sold its land at Nanaimo to James Nicol of the Vancouver Coal Mining and Land Company.

Western Department land records

Dates of Creation

Physical Description
34 cm of textual records
153 maps 

Scope and Content

Series contains deeds, accounts, Register of Sales, ledgers and various miscellaneous papers. These records relate to the sale of land in the town of Victoria, fur trade and additional lands on Vancouver Island during the period of settlement following the Oregon Boundary Treaty of 1846. The accounts include land records of Victoria, Vancouver’s Island Colony, Puget Sound Agricultural Company, coal mines and fur trade land and buildings. The miscellaneous papers include receipts of sales, Resolution and Orders, Memorandum of Agreement (relating to mainland posts in Western Department) and several correspondence enclosures. Series also includes 153 maps, which are plans of some lots and sections, many of which were drawn by J.D. Pemberton.

Copies of J.D. Pemberton’s correspondence with the Hudson’s Bay Company, London and with Andrew Colvile [textual records (microform)]. 1851-1855. Series. MG20-A6.
Textual records. [Access: Restricted]. Private.
JD Pemberton was a surveyor and cartographer sent by the Hudson’s Bay Company to survey Vancouver Island in order to prepare it for …

Sir James Douglas fonds [textual record]. [ca. 1835-1867]. Fonds / Collection.
MG24-A35, R2465-0-2-E.
Textual records. [Access: Open]. Private.
… In 1851, he was appointed the second Governor of the new colony of Vancouver Island, holding that office while continuing as a Chief Factor for the …

Letterbooks [textual record]. 1840-1867. Series.
Textual records. [Access: Open]. Private.
… consists of fur trade letterbook, 1840-1841; letters to the Hudson’s Bay Company regarding the affairs of the Colony of Vancouver Island, 1850-1855 …

Western Department Land Records [textual records (microform)] 1851-1875. Series.

ADM 53. Ships’ Logs [textual record (microform)]. 1815-1870, predominant 1862-1870. Series.

Textual records. [Access: Open]. Private.
… The Beaver was employed in surveying the coast of British Columbia and Vancouver Island (Volumes 9805-9811, microfilm reels B-2120 and B …

Parliamentary Select Committee [textual records (microform)] n.d., ca. 1733-1934. Series.
Textual records. [Access: Restricted]. Private.
… Although the committee vindicated the company’s trading methods and mode of operation, it recommended that Vancouver Island and the …


Hudson’s Bay Company Papers, 1775-1914: Manuscripts Division, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan http://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/clementsmss/umich-wcl-M-746hud?view=text

Nanaimo (BC) City Archives, http://www.nanaimoarchives.ca/transcripts-recordings/historical-transcripts/karr-clarence-hudsons-bay-company/

Beattie, Judith Hudson, Undelivered letters to Hudson’s Bay Company men on the Northwest Coast of America, 1830 – 57. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7748-0974-0.